In the mathematics curriculum, students progress developmentally in their conceptual understanding, from the concrete to the more abstract. Gradually, work becomes more symbolic as students learn to work with number problems. The mechanics of mathematics are used to create and solve problems. Logical thinking skills evolve into higher order thinking in problem solving. Younger students are given substantial opportunity to “learn by doing,” using manipulative materials. There is an emphasis on mathematics as it relates to daily life. By the end of Lower School, students are proficient in the four basic arithmetic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division using whole numbers. They have also begun to work with decimals and fractions and are proficient in turning various word problems into mathematical equations.