## MATHEMATICS

Philosophy

In the mathematics curriculum, students progress developmentally in their conceptual understanding, from the concrete to the more abstract. Gradually, work becomes more symbolic as students learn to work with number problems. The mechanics of mathematics are used to create and solve problems. Logical thinking skills evolve into higher order thinking in problem solving. Younger students are given substantial opportunity to “learn by doing,” using manipulative materials. There is an emphasis on mathematics as it relates to daily life. By the end of Lower School, students are proficient in the four basic arithmetic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division using whole numbers. They have also begun to work with decimals and fractions and are proficient in turning various word problems into mathematical equations.

Kindergarten
The focus in Kindergarten is on the use of manipulative materials to develop and internalize basic mathematical concepts. With the daily use of the calendar and weather charts, students are introduced to an understanding and recognition of numbers and counting. The program includes graphing, patterning, sorting, measuring, sequencing and dealing with money. Texts are from Marshall Cavendish, specifically Math in Focus, a Singapore Math program.

Grade One
In Grade One, hands-on activities and games involving explorations with manipulatives instill an understanding of concrete and abstract concepts. Problem-solving encourages independent thinking; multiple approaches to achieving solutions are demonstrated. Basic addition and subtraction are introduced, as are such concepts as equal to, greater than and less than. Emphasis is placed on recognizing the patterns and relationships that make up the number system. Additional subject areas include place value, measurement, geometry, money and time. Grade One uses the Singapore Math program, which emphasizes mathematical thinking, mental math competency and a visual approach to word problems. Texts are from Marshall Cavendish, specifically Math in Focus, a Singapore Math program.

Grade Two
The Grade Two mathematics program continues work with Math in Focus texts from Marshall Cavendish Education (Singapore Math). The following skills are reinforced through use of manipulatives and visual modeling: manipulating number facts, determining place value, addition and subtraction with regrouping to three digits, working with concepts of time and money, understanding fractions and word problems, basic multiplication, division, and applying math skills to life situations.

Grade Three
Students at this level are learning to work quickly and efficiently with the number system. Computation is emphasized. Students use basic mathematics skills, both computational and conceptual, including addition, subtraction, place value, multiplication, division, simple algebra and geometry, and beginning fractions. Grade Three uses the Singapore Math program, Math in Focus, from the publisher Marshall Cavendish. The Singapore method emphasizes mathematical thinking, mental math competency and a visual approach to word problems. In addition, the math curriculum is supported with various math games to enrich the boys’ learning experience as well as solidify concepts taught.

Grade Four
Mastery of basic operations is reinforced, and additional strategies for problem solving are introduced. Concepts for fractions and decimals and the computations connected with them are integrated. The boys practice in all areas of the subject, including measurement and geometry, and learn to arrive at reasonable estimates. Mental arithmetic and math terminology are included. The ultimate goal is to help the boys become proficient and confident as they respond to mathematical instruction.

Grade Four uses the Singapore Math program, which emphasizes mathematical thinking, mental math competency and a visual approach to word problems.Texts are from Marshall Cavendish, specifically Math in Focus, a Singapore Math program. In addition, Grade Four uses Freckle, an adaptive Math app, to aid students in achieving computational fluency.